Reproducible science requires transparent reporting. The ARRIVE guidelines were originally developed in 2010 to improve the reporting of animal research. They consist of a checklist of information to include in publications describing in vivo experiments to enable others to scrutinise the work adequately, evaluate its methodological rigour, and reproduce the methods and results. Despite considerable levels of endorsement by funders and journals over the years, adherence to the guidelines has been inconsistent, and the anticipated improvements in the quality of reporting in animal research publications have not been achieved.
Here we introduce ARRIVE 2019. The guidelines have been updated and information reorganised to facilitate their use in practice. We used a Delphi exercise to prioritise the items and split the guidelines into two sets, the ARRIVE Essential 10, which constitute the minimum requirement, and the Recommended Set, which describes the research context. This division facilitates improved reporting of animal research by supporting a stepwise approach to implementation. This helps journal editors and reviewers to verify that the most important items are being reported in manuscripts. We have also developed the accompanying Explanation and Elaboration document that serves 1) to explain the rationale behind each item in the guidelines, 2) to clarify key concepts and 3) to provide illustrative examples. We aim through these changes to help ensure that researchers, reviewers and journal editors are better equipped to improve the rigour and transparency of the scientific process and thus reproducibility.
B. ARRIVE Essential 10
|ARRIVE Essential - Study design||For each experiment, provide brief details of study design including:
a. The groups being compared, including control groups. If no control group has been used, the rationale should be stated. b. The experimental unit (e.g. a single animal, litter, or cage of animals).
|ARRIVE Essential - Sample size||a. Specify the exact number of experimental units allocated to each group, and the total number in each experiment. Also indicate the total number of animals used.
b. Explain how the sample size was decided. Provide details of any a priori sample size calculation, if done.
|ARRIVE Essential - Inclusion and exclusion criteria||a. Describe any criteria established a priori for including and excluding animals (or experimental units) during the experiment, and data points during the analysis.
b. For each experimental group, report any animals, experimental units or data points not included in the analysis and explain why. c. For each analysis, report the exact value of N in each experimental group.
|ARRIVE Essential - Randomization||Describe the methods used:
a. To allocate experimental units to control and treatment groups. If randomisation was used, provide the method of randomisation. b. To minimise potential confounding factors such as the order of treatments and measurements, or animal/cage location.
|ARRIVE Essential - Blinding||Describe who was aware of the group allocation at the different stages of the experiment (during the allocation, the conduct of the experiment, the outcome assessment, and the data analysis).|
|ARRIVE Essential - Outcome measures||a. Clearly define all outcome measures assessed (e.g. cell death, molecular markers, or behavioural changes).
b. For hypothesis-testing studies, specify the primary outcome measure, i.e. the outcome measure that was used to determine the sample size.
|ARRIVE Essential - Statistical methods||a. Provide details of the statistical methods used for each analysis.
b. Specify the experimental unit that was used for each statistical test. c. Describe any methods used to assess whether the data met the assumptions of the statistical approach.
|ARRIVE Essential - Experimental animals||a. Provide details of the animals used, including species, strain and substrain, sex, age or developmental stage, and weight.
b. Provide further relevant information on the provenance of animals, health/immune status, genetic modification status, genotype, and any previous procedures.
|ARRIVE Essential - Experimental procedures||For each experimental group, including controls, describe the procedures in enough detail to allow others to replicate them, including:
a. What was done, how it was done and what was used. b. When and how often. c. Where (including detail of any acclimation periods). d. Why (provide rationale for procedures).
|ARRIVE Essential - Results||For each experiment conducted, including independent replications, report:
a. Summary/descriptive statistics for each experimental group, with a measure of variability where applicable. b. If applicable, the effect size with a confidence interval.
Information on this and related pages is based on or copied directly from the ARRIVE guidelines 2019:
back to Toolbox